Abincin alloli' jerin kwayoyin halitta na iya sa mafi kyawun cakulan mafi kyau
Abincin alloli' jerin kwayoyin halitta na iya sa mafi kyawun cakulan mafi kyau
Anonim

Samar da cakulan mai inganci, da manoman da suke noma shi, za su amfana daga jerin abubuwan da aka yi kwanan nan da kuma haɗa nau'ikan kwayoyin halittar cakulan, a cewar wata tawagar kasa da kasa karkashin jagorancin Claire Lanaud na CIRAD, Faransa, tare da Mark Guiltinan na jihar Penn, da kuma ciki har da masana kimiyya daga wasu cibiyoyi 18.

Ƙungiyar ta tsara DNA na nau'in cacao na Theobroma, wanda aka yi la'akari da shi don samar da mafi kyawun cakulan a duniya. Mayakan sun yi amfani da wannan nau'in cacao na Theobroma cacao, Criollo, kimanin shekaru 3,000 da suka wuce a Amurka ta Tsakiya, kuma yana daya daga cikin tsoffin itatuwan gida. A yau, yawancin manoma sun gwammace su shuka itatuwan cacao na matasan da ke samar da cakulan ƙarancin inganci amma sun fi jure cututtuka.

Guiltinan, farfesa a fannin nazarin kwayoyin halittun shuka ya ce "An kiyasta samar da koko mai kyau kasa da kashi 5 cikin 100 na noman koko a duniya saboda karancin aiki da kuma kamuwa da cututtuka."

Masu binciken sun ba da rahoton a cikin fitowar ta Nature Genetics a halin yanzu "masu amfani da kayan abinci sun nuna karuwar sha'awar cakulan mai inganci da aka yi da koko mai kyau da kuma cakulan duhu, wanda ke dauke da kashi mafi girma na koko, yayin da suke la'akari da muhalli da ka'idojin da'a. samar da koko."

A halin yanzu, yawancin manoman cacao suna samun kusan $2 a kowace rana, amma masu samar da cacao mai kyau suna samun ƙari. Ƙara yawan aiki da sauƙi na noman cacao na iya taimakawa wajen haɓaka tattalin arzikin cacao mai dorewa. A yanzu haka ana ganin itatuwan a matsayin amfanin gona mai amfani ga muhalli domin sun fi girma a karkashin inuwar daji, wanda ke ba da damar gyara filaye da wadatar halittu.

Ayyukan tawagar sun gano nau'ikan iyalai iri-iri waɗanda za su iya yin tasiri a nan gaba wajen inganta itatuwan cacao da 'ya'yan itace ko dai ta hanyar haɓaka halayensu ko ba da kariya daga cututtukan fungal da kwari masu tasiri bishiyoyin cacao.

"Binciken mu na Criollo genome ya gano tushen kwayoyin halitta na hanyoyin da ke haifar da mafi mahimmancin halayen cakulan - man fetur, flavonoid da terpene biosynthesis," in ji Siela Maximova, mataimakin farfesa a fannin noma, Penn State, kuma memba na tawagar bincike. "Haka kuma ya kai ga gano daruruwan kwayoyin halitta da ke da hannu wajen jure wa kwayoyin cuta, wadanda dukkansu za a iya amfani da su wajen kara habaka irin fitattun nau'in cacao a nan gaba."

Saboda Criollo itatuwa ne kai pollinating, su ne kullum sosai homozygous, mallakan biyu m siffofin kowane gene, yin wannan musamman iri-iri mai kyau zabi ga m genome taro.

Masu binciken sun tattara kashi 84 cikin 100 na kwayoyin halittar da ke gano kwayoyin halitta 28, 798 wadanda ke dauke da sunadaran. Sun sanya kashi 88 cikin 100 ko 23, 529 na waɗannan kwayoyin halittar sunadaran sunadaran zuwa ɗaya daga cikin chromosomes 10 a cikin bishiyar cacao Criollo. Sun kuma kalli microRNAs, gajerun RNAs marasa coding wanda ke daidaita kwayoyin halitta, kuma sun gano cewa microRNAs a cikin Criollo tabbas manyan masu sarrafa maganganun kwayoyin halitta.

"Abin sha'awa shine, kawai kashi 20 cikin 100 na kwayoyin halitta sun kasance ne daga abubuwan da za a iya canzawa, daya daga cikin hanyoyin halitta ta hanyar da kwayoyin halitta suka canza," in ji Guiltinan "Suna yin haka ta hanyar motsi a kusa da chromosomes, canza tsarin kwayoyin halitta. Ƙananan adadi. na transposons fiye da samu a cikin wasu nau'in shuka zai iya haifar da sannu a hankali juyin halittar shukar cakulan, wanda aka nuna yana da sauƙin tarihin juyin halitta dangane da tsarin kwayoyin halitta."

Guiltinan da abokan aikinsa suna sha'awar takamaiman dangin dangin da za su iya danganta ga takamaiman halayen koko ko juriyar cuta. Suna fatan yin taswirar wadannan iyalai na kwayar halitta zai haifar da tushen kwayoyin halittar da ke da hannu kai tsaye a cikin bambance-bambance a cikin shuka wanda ke da amfani don hanzarta shirye-shiryen kiwo.

Masu binciken sun gano nau'ikan kwayoyin halittar juriya guda biyu a cikin kwayar halittar Criollo. Sun kwatanta waɗannan zuwa yankuna da aka gano a baya akan chromosomes waɗanda ke da alaƙa da juriyar cuta --QTLs - kuma sun gano cewa akwai alaƙa tsakanin wurare da yawa na juriya na QTL. Tawagar ta ba da shawarar cewa tsarin tsarin genomics mai aiki, wanda ke kallon abin da kwayoyin halitta ke yi, ana buƙatar don tabbatar da yuwuwar ƙwayoyin cuta masu jurewa a cikin kwayar halittar Criollo.

A boye a cikin kwayoyin halittar da masu binciken suka gano sun kuma gano kwayoyin halittar da ke samar da man shanun koko, wani abu mai matukar daraja a wajen hada cakulan, da kayan zaki, magunguna da kayan kwalliya. Yawancin waken koko sun riga sun kai kimanin kashi 50 cikin dari, amma waɗannan kwayoyin halitta 84 suna sarrafa ba kawai adadin ba amma ingancin man koko.

An gano wasu kwayoyin halitta waɗanda ke yin tasiri ga samar da flavonoids, antioxidants na halitta da terpenoids, hormones, pigments da ƙanshi. Canja kwayoyin halittar wadannan sinadarai na iya samar da cakulan da mafi kyawun dandano, kamshi har ma da cakulan mafi koshin lafiya.

Shahararren taken