Ciwo da ƙaiƙayi sun haɗa ƙasa mai zurfi
Ciwo da ƙaiƙayi sun haɗa ƙasa mai zurfi
Anonim

Wani sabon bincike na ƙaiƙayi yana ƙara shaida mai girma cewa siginar sinadarai da ke sa mu so mu karce su ne siginar da ke sa mu yi nasara cikin zafi.

Ana fahimtar hulɗar da ke tsakanin ƙaiƙayi da jin zafi kawai, in ji mai binciken ƙaiƙayi da ciwo Diana Bautista, mataimakiyar farfesa a ilimin kwayoyin halitta da kwayoyin halitta a Jami'ar California, Berkeley. Fatar ta ƙunshi wasu ƙwayoyin jijiyoyi waɗanda ke amsawa kawai ga ƙaiƙayi da sauran waɗanda ke amsa kawai ga zafi. Wasu, duk da haka, suna amsawa duka biyu, kuma wasu abubuwa suna haifar da itching da zafi.

Idan ƙaiƙayi da zafi suna da alaƙa da alaƙa, duk da haka, abubuwan da ke faruwa suna da girma, in ji Bautista. Idan zafi da ƙaiƙayi suna amfani da kwayoyin halitta iri ɗaya don sadarwa tare da kwakwalwa, magungunan da ake haɓaka yanzu don rage zafi na iya yin shuru mai ƙaiƙayi.

"Wasu nau'ikan ƙaiƙayi suna amsa maganin antihistamines, amma mafi yawan ƙaiƙayi, musamman ƙaiƙayi masu alaƙa da cututtuka na yau da kullun kamar gazawar koda da hanta, ciwon sukari da ciwon daji, ba sa,” in ji ta. "Ko da rashin lafiyar wani bangare na maganin antihistamines ne kawai. Mun nuna cewa daya daga cikin magungunan da kamfanonin harhada magunguna ke duba yanzu a matsayin maganin rage radadi kuma yana toshe wasu nau'in ciwon kai mai zaman kansa na histamine."

Sabon bincike na Bautista, wanda aka buga a cikin bugu na wannan makon na mujallar Nature Neuroscience, ya nuna cewa ƙayyadaddun abubuwa guda biyu suna haifar da itching ta hanyar mai karɓar wasabi, mai jin zafi wanda ya saba da masoya sushi.

Sauran binciken na baya-bayan nan sun nuna cewa wasu masu haifar da ƙaiƙayi - waɗanda ake kira pruritogens - suna haifar da kunna mai karɓar capsaicin, mai karɓar raɗaɗi mai suna don sinadarai masu ƙonewa a cikin barkono barkono.

"Ya fara kama da yawancin masu karɓar raɗaɗi suna da alaƙa da tsarin ƙaiƙayi," in ji ta. "Dukkanin ƙaiƙayi da zafi suna amfani da wasu kwayoyin halitta iri ɗaya don aika sakonni zuwa kwakwalwa."

Bautista ya canza dabi'ar beraye don kada su samar da mai karɓar wasabi, kuma yana fatan cewa nau'in linzamin kwamfuta zai taimaka wajen fahimtar nau'ikan ƙaiƙayi waɗanda ba sa amsa maganin antihistamines.

Ƙiƙwalwar ƙaiƙayi da jin zafi na taɓawa

Bautista ya ce zafi da ƙaiƙayi sun wuce iyaka na ma'anar taɓawa, wanda shi kansa ba a fahimta sosai ba. Yayin da bincike ya nuna dalla-dalla yadda ake taba masu karba akan taswirar fata zuwa kwakwalwa, "hakika budaddiyar tambaya ce wacce kwayoyin halitta ke da hannu wajen gano abubuwan kara kuzari, kamar girgiza ko taba haske, da kuma yadda aka canza wadannan kwayoyin."

A cikin dakin gwaje-gwajenta, tana shafa nau'ikan sinadarai da abubuwan motsa jiki ga fata don yin nazari da keɓe takamaiman masu karɓa waɗanda ke amsa irin waɗannan abubuwan motsa jiki. Hakanan tana haɓaka ƙwayoyin fata da ƙwayoyin jijiya a cikin jita-jita don bincika su sosai.

"Daya daga cikin abubuwan da ke da kyau game da sel masu taɓawa shine za ku iya saka su a cikin tasa, kuma za ku iya buga su, kuma za su amsa idan aka taɓa siginar lantarki," Bautista ya shaida wa tashar labarai ta Daily Californian a bara.

Shekaru biyar da suka wuce, Bautista ya nuna cewa allyl isothiocyanate, sinadari mai tsaftace sinus a cikin wasabi, mustard mai zafi da tafarnuwa, yana haifar da ciwo kawai ta hanyar kunna mai karɓa mai suna TRPA1 akan jijiyoyi masu hankali. Mai karɓa yana ɗaya daga cikin rukunin tashoshin ion masu karɓa na wucin gadi (TRP) a cikin jijiyoyi masu hankali a ƙarƙashin fata, ciki har da baki da ƙwayar ƙwayar cuta, wanda ke gano yawan zafin jiki, lalata na'ura da kuma sinadarai masu tayar da hankali. Capsaicin da mai karɓar zafi, wanda ake kira TRPV1, wani irin tashar ion ne, kamar yadda TRPM8, tashar tashar sanyi mai sanyi ta hanyar menthol da sauran masu sanyaya. Lokacin da aka kunna waɗannan masu karɓa, suna buɗewa kuma suna lalata ƙwayar jijiya, wanda ke watsa siginar jin zafi mai ɗaukar hankali ta hanyar kashin baya zuwa kwakwalwa.

Aikin jin zafi ya haifar da sha'awar ƙaiƙayi, kuma Bautista ya tara wakilai iri-iri waɗanda ke motsa ƙaiƙayi, ciki har da shuka da ake kira cowhage (Mucuna pruriens) da chloroquine na miyagun ƙwayoyi, maganin zazzabin cizon sauro wanda sau da yawa yakan haifar da jahannama, ko'ina.. A wasu kasashen Afirka kusan kashi 70 cikin 100 na al'ummar kasar suna kamuwa da ciwon chloroquine, wanda ke sa mutane da yawa daina shan ta.

Tsakanin kashi 5 zuwa 20 cikin 100 na jijiyoyi masu azanci na fata ne kawai ke jin ƙaiƙayi, kuma rukuni ɗaya daga cikinsu yana da masu karɓar histamine waɗanda magungunan antihistamines za su iya toshe su don dakatar da ƙaiƙayi. Dukansu chloroquine da saniya, duk da haka, suna haifar da ƙaiƙayi mai zaman kansa na histamine, kamar yadda mahaɗan opium ke yi; kumburi, daga asma da allergies zuwa fatar fata; da eczema. Waɗannan a halin yanzu ba za a iya magance su ba kuma an mayar da hankali ga binciken Bautista.

Alamar gama gari na masu karɓar ƙaiƙayi shine cewa su ƴan dangin G masu karɓa ne masu haɗakar da furotin da jiki ke amfani dashi sosai don watsa sigina daga wajen tantanin halitta zuwa cikin tantanin halitta. Abokin Bautista Xinzhong Dong a Sashen Kimiyyar Neuroscience na Solomon H. Snyder a Makarantar Magunguna ta Jami'ar Johns Hopkins da ke Baltimore kwanan nan ya gano sabbin masu karɓar ƙaiƙayi guda biyu, dukkansu biyun masu karɓar furotin G masu alaƙa da Mas. Ɗayan, MrgprA3, ana motsa shi ta hanyar chloroquine, yayin da na biyu, MrgprC11, yana motsa shi ta BAM8-22, peptide wanda kwayoyin rigakafi suka saki, ciki har da mast cells, yayin kumburi.

Idan jijiyoyi masu jin dadi sun ƙunshi masu karɓar raɗaɗi kamar TRPA1 da TRPV1, da masu karɓa kamar MrgprA3 da MrgprC11, ta yaya tantanin halitta ya bambanta tsakanin ƙaiƙayi da zafi? Bautista ya tambaya.

Mai da hankali kan wasabi

Bautista ya gwada duka chloroquine da sinadarai na mast cell BAM8-22 akan ƙwayoyin linzamin kwamfuta na al'ada kuma sun gano cewa duka biyu suna kunna mai karɓar wasabi, TRPA1, yana haifar da lalata ƙwayoyin jijiya. Bugu da ƙari, ƙwanƙwasa ƙwanƙwasa waɗanda ba su da mai karɓa ba su amsa kowane sinadari, yayin da wani sinadari da ke toshe mai karɓa shi ma yana dakatar da ƙaiƙayi.

Fassararta na sakamakon shine cewa a cikin jijiyoyi masu azanci tare da mai karɓar chloroquine itch receptor da wasabi mai raɗaɗi, lokacin da chloroquine ya ɗaure ga mai karɓar ta, daga baya ya buɗe mai karɓar wasabi, wanda ke cire ƙwayar jijiya kuma yana aika siginar ƙaiƙayi zuwa kwakwalwa. Hakazalika, a cikin sel waɗanda ke da duka mai karɓa na BAM8-22 da mai karɓa na wasabi, BAM8-22 yana haifar da buɗewar mai karɓar wasabi. Dukansu masu haifar da ƙaiƙayi suna haifar da masu karɓar raɗaɗi ta hanyar haɗin gwiwar sunadaran G a cikin tantanin halitta.

"Wadannan gwaje-gwajen suna ba da nuni mai ban mamaki cewa chloroquine da BAM8-22 suna haifar da ƙaiƙayi kawai ta hanyar mai karɓar wasabi," in ji ta. "Idan duka hanyoyin biyu sun haɗu a kan tashar ion guda ɗaya, watakila wasu kwayoyin da ke haifar da ƙaiƙayi suma suna amfani da wannan tashar."

Shahararren taken