Nazari: Tauraron kifin da ba kasafai ba ya makale a tsarin jikin matasa
Nazari: Tauraron kifin da ba kasafai ba ya makale a tsarin jikin matasa
Anonim

Tawagar masana kimiyya ta hada abubuwan lura a cikin mahaifa, tsarin kwayoyin halitta, da kuma supercomputing don tantance cewa gungun kananan dabbobi masu sifar faifai da a da ake tunanin suna wakiltar sabon nau'in dabbobi, haƙiƙan kifin taurari ne da suka rasa babban siffar tauraro, jikin manya. daga tsarin rayuwarsu.

A cikin takarda don mujallar Systematic Biology (sysbio.oxfordjournals.org), Daniel Janies, Ph.D., masanin ilimin lissafi a sashen ilimin ilimin halittu a Jami'ar Jihar Ohio (OSU), ya ba da damar tsarin kwamfuta a Cibiyar Supercomputer ta Ohio. (OSC) don taimakawa goyan bayan hujjarsa cewa matsayin matakin Xyloplax baya nuna tarihin juyin halittar su.

"Ko da yake Xyloplax baya wakiltar wani sabon aji, har yanzu dabba ce mai ban sha'awa saboda tana wakiltar wani misali da ba kasafai ba na yadda zaɓin yanayi zai iya tsara duk tsarin rayuwa," in ji shi. "Ta hanyar kawar da babban matakin girma, Xylopax ya gano yadda ake yin rayuwa a cikin ƙugiya da ƙuƙumman katako na katako a cikin zurfin teku."

Janies ya haɗu a kan takarda tare da mawallafin Janet R. Voight, Ph.D., a cikin sashen nazarin halittu a filin tarihin tarihi a Chicago, da Marymegan Daly, Ph.D., a cikin sashen Juyin Halitta, Ecology. da Halittar Halitta a Jihar Ohio.

Janies da abokan aikinsa suna nazarin echinoderms - starfish, urchins na teku da danginsu na kusa - a matsayin wani ɓangare na binciken Cibiyar Kimiyya ta Ƙasa ta Amurka ta Haɗa Bishiyar Rayuwa. Masana kimiyyar OSU da dama, da suka hada da Janies da Daly, sun ci wadannan tallafi, wanda akasari ana kimarsu akan dala miliyan 3 sama da shekaru biyar, don kara fahimtar alakar kowane nau'in rayuwa (http://echinotol.org).

Kamar yadda nazarin bishiyar rayuwa ke da wuyar ƙididdigewa, aikin na yanzu yana kunna ta tsokar ƙididdiga ta tsarin flagship na OSC, 9, 500-node IBM 1350 Opteron “Glenn Cluster.”

"A bara, OSC ta tura dala miliyan 4 zuwa ga Glenn Cluster tare da takamaiman mayar da hankali kan tallafawa masu bincike, kamar Drs. Janies da Daly, a cikin sashin ilimin kimiyyar halittu na Ohio,”in ji Ashok Krishnamurthy, darektan riko na OSC. "Cibiyar tana ba da yanayin ƙididdiga na duniya don ayyukan bincike na kimiyyar halittu masu ban mamaki a wurare kamar Sashen Ilimin Kimiyya na Biomedical na OSU, Cibiyar Bincike a Asibitin Yara na Ƙasa da kuma Clinic Cleveland."

Masu binciken sun bincika duka bayanan kwayoyin halitta da na jiki don tallafawa hasashe, kwatanta Xyloplax tare da jimillar nau'ikan nau'ikan 86 da ke wakiltar manyan lamuran rayuwa guda biyar na echinoderms (cucumbers na teku, urchins na teku, kifin starfish, taurari masu gasa, da lilies na teku). Don ingantacciyar kwatance, sun yi amfani da hanyoyin bincike da yawa don nemo maye gurbi da canje-canje a cikin jiki tsakanin zuriyarsu.

Sakamakon ya bayyana alaƙar da ke cikin bishiyar phylogenetic wanda ke wakiltar mafi kyawun ra'ayi akan yadda Xyloplax ya samo asali daga wasu echinoderms. Phylogenetics shine nazarin dangantakar juyin halitta da canje-canje tsakanin nau'ikan halittu daban-daban yayin da suka samo asali daga kakanni guda.

Kafin wannan binciken, binciken kwayoyin Xyloplax ya iyakance, saboda samfurori a cikin tarin farko guda biyu a cikin 1980s an gyara su a cikin wani bayani wanda ke lalata DNA. Voight kwanan nan ya tattara samfuran Xyloplax a arewa maso gabashin Tekun Pasifik kuma ya adana su a hankali a cikin ethanol. Daga waɗannan samfurori, Daly ya sami damar jera kwayoyin halitta da yawa don Xyloplax. Sabbin samfuran Xyloplax kuma sun haɗa da mata masu tsiro da yawa waɗanda ke ɗauke da embryos, suna ba Janies ra'ayin da ba a taɓa ganin irinsa ba na farkon halittar.

Janies da abokan aiki sunyi tunanin cewa Xyloplax ya bambanta da sauran nau'in kifin tauraro saboda yana da girma - wato, yana da yanayin rayuwa mai wuyar gaske, wanda ya bar balagaggen kwayoyin halitta tare da abubuwan da aka kiyaye daga matakan samartaka. Misali, hannayen kifin tauraro yawanci suna girma axially, kamar maganan dabaran, yayin da suke tasowa daga yara zuwa manya, yayin da Xyloplax ke tsiro tare da kewayenta, kamar dabaran kanta, kuma baya haɓaka makamai.

"Ba tare da la'akari da tsari ko tsarin samar da bayanai ba, sakamakonmu ya nuna cewa Xyloplax ya samo asali ne daga cikin kifin tauraro," in ji Janies. "Xyloplax ɗan kifin tauraro ne kawai wanda ke da tsarin jiki mai ban mamaki da wurin zama, mai ban mamaki cewa mutane da yawa ba za su iya gane shi a matsayin kifin tauraro ba har sai mun buɗe kwayar halittarsa ​​da haɓakarsa."

Shahararren taken