Kimiyyar Neuroscience a Kotu: Kwakwalwa Ta Sa Ni Yi
Kimiyyar Neuroscience a Kotu: Kwakwalwa Ta Sa Ni Yi
Anonim

Ya taba zama likitan yara da ake girmamawa, wanda marasa lafiya da iyayensu ke ƙauna fiye da shekaru 30. Yanzu haka Domenico Mattiello na fuskantar shari'a kan cin zarafin yara, ana zarginsa da yin lalata da kananan 'yan mata da ke kula da shi.

Masana kimiyya za su yi gardama a gaban kotu cewa lalacewar kwakwalwarsa ce ta sanya shi yin hakan, kuma lauyoyinsa za su nemi a yi masa sassauci.

Shi ne sabon misali na yadda ilimin kimiyyar kwakwalwa - kimiyyar kwakwalwa da yadda take aiki - ke tsayawa tsayin daka da fara kalubalantar ra'ayoyin al'umma na aikata laifuka da azabtarwa.

Sabbin fasahohi sun jefa batun a cikin tabo, kamar sifa da kuma aikin maganadisu na maganadisu (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans da bincike na DNA, wanda zai iya taimakawa gano tushen ilimin halittu na rikice-rikicen tunani.

Jerin binciken da aka yi a baya-bayan nan ya tabbatar da cewa masu fyade na psychopathic da masu kisan kai suna da tsarin kwakwalwa daban-daban waɗanda ke nunawa lokacin da aka duba kawunansu ta amfani da MRI.

Kuma a Amurka, kamfanoni biyu, daya mai suna No Lie MRI da wani mai suna Cephos Corp, suna tallata ayyukan gano karya ta hanyar amfani da fMRI ga lauyoyi da masu gabatar da kara.

LAIFI DA AZABA

Yayin da tsarin MRI yana nuna tsarin kwakwalwa kuma yana iya nuna bambance-bambance tsakanin kwakwalwa daya da kuma wani, PET da fMRI scans kuma na iya nuna kwakwalwa a cikin aiki, haskakawa a wasu lokuta lokacin da kwakwalwa ta shiga wasu ayyuka.

Amma sabbin fasahohi masu ban sha'awa da cikakkun bayanan kwayoyin halitta sun ba da amsa game da ko kotunan laifuka su ne wurin da ya dace don amfani da wannan sabon bayani.

"Damuwar ita ce doka, ko kuma aƙalla wasu alkalai, na iya jin daɗin fasahar da suka fara ba da shawarar yanke hukunci game da laifi ga wani nau'i na gwaji," in ji Colin Blakemore, farfesa a ilimin neuroscience a Jami'ar Oxford.

Lauyoyin mai kisan gilla dan Amurka Brian Dugan, wanda ke fuskantar hukuncin kisa a Illinois bayan da ya amsa laifin yi wa wata yarinya ‘yar shekara 10 fyade tare da kashe shi, sun yi amfani da duban yadda kwakwalwar sa ke gudanar da aikin, inda suka ce yana da matsala a kwakwalwar sa, don haka a bar masa hukuncin kisa. A cikin lamarin, Illinois ta soke hukuncin kisa yayin da yake kan hukuncin kisa.

A wata kotu a birnin Mumbai na kasar Indiya, an samu wata mata da laifin kisan kai ne kawai bisa wasu dalilai da suka dace da kuma gwajin da ake kira kwakwalwar wutar lantarki (BEOS), wanda sakamakon da masu gabatar da kara suka ce ya nuna cewa tana da laifi.

Kwanakin da likitocin masu tabin hankali ke yin gardama kan karfin tunani na aikata laifuka ba tare da taimakon na'urori na zamani ba - kamar hukuncin Juma'a cewa mai kisan gilla dan kasar Norway Anders Behring Breivik ya kasance mai hankali lokacin da ya kashe mutane 77 - ga alama adadinsu.

Teneille Brown, farfesa a fannin shari'a a Jami'ar Utah ta ce "Ana amfani da kowane nau'i na shaidar kimiyyar neuroscience don kowane nau'i na da'awar." "Tambayar ita ce, shin da gaske wannan fasaha ta shirya don babban lokaci, ko kuma ana cin zarafi?"

"SANARWA PAEDOPHILIA"

A cikin shari'ar Mattiello, shaidun kimiyyar neuroscientific za su zo ta hanyar cikakken bincike na tabin hankali da nazarin halittu ciki har da na'urar duban kwakwalwar MRI wanda ke nuna ƙwayar cuta mai kusan santimita 4 da ke girma a gindin kwakwalwarsa.

Wannan ya haifar da matsin lamba a cikin kwanyarsa kuma ya "canza halayensa", in ji Pietro Pietrini, masanin kwayoyin halitta kuma likitan hauka a Jami'ar Pisa ta Italiya wanda ke hada rahoton ƙwararru kan ɗan shekaru 65.

Pietrini ya shaida wa kamfanin dillancin labarai na Reuters cewa: "Halayensa na baya sun kasance na yau da kullun." "Ya kasance likitan yara na tsawon shekaru 30 kuma ya ga dubun-dubatar yara kuma bai taba samun matsala ba. Tambayar ita ce, me ya sa, a wani lokaci, wani wanda ya saba da halin kirki ba zato ba tsammani ya canza sosai?"

An kama likitan ne a Vicenza, arewacin Italiya, fiye da shekara guda da ta gabata, kuma yana jinyar cutar daji bayan an cire masa ciwon. Pietrini zai sake ganinsa a wata mai zuwa don ci gaba da tantancewar da kuma ganin illar maganin.

Shari’ar da har yanzu ba ta kai ga kotu ba, ta yi kama da na ‘’yan ta’adda da aka samu’ tun shekara ta 2002, inda wata malamar makaranta Ba’amurke mai shekara 40 ta yi aure ba zato ba tsammani ta kamu da son jima’i kuma ta fara tattara hotunan batsa a asirce.

A ƙarshe an cire shi daga gidan dangi saboda yin lalata da diyar sa kuma an same shi da laifin lalata. Amma daga baya binciken likita ya gano cewa yana da ciwace mai girman kwai a wani sashe na kwakwalwar da ke yin shawara.

Sa’ad da aka cire ƙwayar cutar, mutumin ya warke daga halinsa na rashin tarbiyya kuma ya iya komawa wurin iyalinsa.

Masana sun yi ittifaqi akan cewa yanayi irin su psychopathy da pedophilia ba za a iya “warkar da su” ba, amma a cikin wannan lamari mai cike da rudani, ya bayyana cewa cire ciwan ciwon, da kuma matsin lamba a cikin kwakwalwa, na iya sake dawo da ikonsa na sarrafa sha’awa.

Kamar dai yadda lamarin yake, Pietrini ya ce shi da abokin aikinsa Giuseppe Sartori na Jami'ar Padua sun yi imanin cewa ciwon Mattiello "zai iya taka rawa wajen sauya halayensa".

"Wannan shi ne abin da za mu yi jayayya," in ji Pietrini. "Amma ba shakka zai kasance alkali ya tantance ko yaya ya yi imanin cewa wannan yanayin na rashin lafiya ya taka rawa."

Blakemore na Oxford, daya daga cikin manyan masu tunani a duniya a wannan fanni, ya ce irin wadannan al’amura “abin ban mamaki ne”.

"Yana sa mutum mamaki game da ra'ayin alhakin," in ji shi a cikin wata hira.

SHIN "KWAKWALWA YA SA NI AIKATA" KARE?

Kuma idan ana maganar gidan yari, ya kamata a hukunta masu lalata, masu ilimin halin dan Adam da sauran masu aikata muggan laifuka idan za a iya dora laifin da suka aikata a kan ilmin halitta? Shin "kwakwalwa ce ta sanya ni yi" kariya ce da ke ba da tabbacin yanke hukunci mai sauƙi, ko ma babu lokacin ɗaurin kurkuku kwata-kwata?

"(Yana) ya tayar da dukan batun abin da kuke tunanin yanke hukunci," in ji Blakemore. "Shin hukuncin ukuba ne? Ko dai na gyara ne da gyarawa? Ko kuwa na kare al'umma ne? To, har zuwa wani lokaci duk wadannan abubuwa ne."

Shaidu na baya-bayan nan - daga shari'o'i na gaske da na hasashe - suna nuna alƙalai suna da tausayi ga shaidar neurobiological azaman ragewa.

Wani bincike da aka buga a Mujallar Kimiyya a wannan watan ya nuna cewa masu aikata laifuka a Amurka wadanda lauyoyinsu suka ba da hujjojin halittu game da yanayin kwakwalwar su sun fi fuskantar yanke hukuncin dauri na takaitaccen lokaci fiye da wadanda kawai aka ce su masu tabin hankali ne.

Don binciken, masu bincike a Jami'ar Utah sun yi gyare-gyare a kan ainihin rayuwar Stephen Mobley, Ba'amurke mai shekaru 39 da aka yanke wa hukuncin kisa a shekara ta 1994 bayan da ya yi fashi a wani wurin pizza na Domino a Jojiya kuma ya harbe manajan gidan abincin.

A shari’ar da ake yi masa, lauyan Mobley ya gabatar da shaidun da ke nuna cewa wanda ake tuhumar yana da wani nau’in kwayar halitta mai suna MAO-A da aka yiwa lakabi da “jarumi” bayan da masana kimiyya suka gano yana da alaka da tashin hankali.

GENESA MAI FUSHI

A cikin binciken Kimiyya, an ba wa alkalai shari'ar hasashe ba tare da la'akari da na Mobley ba, inda laifin ya kasance mummunan duka da bindiga, maimakon harbi mai kisa.

An gaya wa alkalan duk wanda ake tuhuma ya kasance mai tabin hankali, amma rabi ne kawai aka ba da shaidar ƙwararru kan abubuwan da ke haifar da tabin hankali. Wadanda suka sami shaidar kimiyyar neuroscientific sun fi iya ba da ɗan gajeren jumla - gabaɗaya kusan shekara guda ƙasa da ƙasa, binciken ya gano.

Pietrini ya yi aiki a kan irin wannan shari'ar ta ainihi a Italiya a cikin 2009 - wanda ake zaton shine ɗayan laifuka na farko na laifi a Turai don amfani da irin wannan shaidar kimiyyar neuroscientific.

Hakan ya shafi Abdelmalek Bayout, dan kasar Aljeriya da ke zaune a Italiya, wanda aka yi masa shari’a kuma aka yanke masa hukunci bisa laifin kashe wani mutum da ya yi masa ba’a a titi.

Bayan gudanar da jerin gwaje-gwaje a kan dan kasar Algeria, Pietrini da abokan aikinsa sun ce sun gano nakasu wajen daukar hoton kwakwalwar sa, da kuma wasu kwayoyin halitta guda biyar da ke da alaka da tashin hankali - ciki har da MAO-A.

Wani bincike na 2002 wanda masu bincike a Cibiyar Kula da Lafiyar Halitta a Kwalejin King London suka jagoranta ya danganta ƙananan matakan MAO-A tare da tashin hankali da halayyar aikata laifuka a cikin yara maza da suka taso a cikin wuraren cin zarafi.

Lauyoyin Bayout sun yanke hukuncin rage masa hukuncin da suka ce wannan da wasu munanan kwayoyin halitta sun shafi kwakwalwarsa kuma suna da alhakin kai harin.

A INA ZAI KARSHE?

Masanan sun ce kusan babu makawa cewa ilimin neuroscience da doka za su kara cudanya da juna. Bayan haka, yayin da kimiyyar neuroscience ke neman gano yadda kwakwalwa ke aiki da kuma rinjayar hali, babban abin da ke damun doka shine daidaita halaye.

Amma duk da haka mutane da yawa ba su da daɗi game da amfani da su a kotunan shari'a - da kuma a cikin lamuran rayuwa da mutuwa - na ainihin kimiyyar da ke fitowa daga ɗakin binciken kawai.

Masu lura da al'amura irin su Hank Greely, farfesa a fannin shari'a a Jami'ar Stanford, sun nuna cewa babu wani binciken da aka yi bita na ƙwararru na kimiyya wanda ke nuna cewa BEOS - gwajin ƙwaƙwalwa da aka yi amfani da shi a shari'ar Mumbai - a zahiri yana aiki.

Wasu kuma suna jaddada cewa yayin da kwayoyin halitta kamar MAO-A ke da alaƙa da tashin hankali, akwai kuma mutane da yawa masu irin wannan nau'in jinsin da ba sa fita waje su kashe, fyade ko cin zarafi.

"Masana kimiyya masu tsanani suna amfani da ilimin Neuroscience a cikin ɗakunan gwaje-gwaje na gaske, amma mutanen da suke ƙoƙarin yin amfani da shi a kotu ba mutane ɗaya ba ne," in ji Utah's Brown. "Don haka suna ɗaukar wani abu mai kama da haƙiƙa, wanda yayi kama da daidaitaccen kimiyyar zinare, amma sai a canza shi zuwa tsarin binciken da ba a ƙirƙira shi da shi ba.

"Wannan ba kimiyyar man maciji ba ce, kimiyya ce ta gaske. Amma ana yin kuskure."

Seena Fazel, babban malami a asibiti a fannin ilimin tabin hankali a Jami'ar Oxford, ya ce bai ji dadin abubuwan da ke dadewa ba kuma yana mamakin inda zai kare.

An riga an san sansanonin ilimin halitta ga yawancin masu aikata laifukan da ke fama da rikice-rikicen kwakwalwa, ciki har da shan muggan kwayoyi, shaye-shaye da rashin zaman lafiya, wanda ake tunanin zai shafi kusan rabin wadanda ke cikin kurkuku.

"Idan psychopathy ya rage hukuncinku saboda yana da tushen ilimin halitta, me yasa sauran sauran sharuɗɗan da suka fi dacewa ba za su haifar da raguwar jimloli ba? Matsalar a nan ita ce ta ina za mu ja layi?"

Shahararren taken