Kashi 30% na Yara A Ƙasashe Masu Ƙarfafawa Suna Samun Matsalolin Ci Gaba Daga Shekara 3
Kashi 30% na Yara A Ƙasashe Masu Ƙarfafawa Suna Samun Matsalolin Ci Gaba Daga Shekara 3
Anonim

A cikin 2004, wani jerin Lancet ya gano cewa fiye da yara miliyan 200 da ke fama da rashin abinci mai gina jiki da talauci a cikin ƙasashe masu ƙanƙanta da matsakaitan masu samun kudin shiga sun kasance cikin fahimta da ruɗani kafin su kai shekaru 5. Yarancin farko lokaci ne na musamman, kuma abubuwan da ba su da kyau a lokacin. nasaba da mummunan sakamakon lafiya daga baya a rayuwa. Amma lokacin da masu bincike a Harvard T.H. Makarantar Chan ta tafi yin amfani da wannan bayanan don mafi kyawun ƙididdige wannan sakamako don sabon binciken da aka buga a cikin Magungunan PLOS, sun sami wasu misalai kaɗan.

Wannan ba yana nufin an yi watsi da jin daɗin yaran da ke zaune a waɗannan ƙasashe ba. Masu bincike sun mayar da hankali kan lafiyar jiki da kuma yawan rayuwa, binciken bincike Dana Charles McCoy ya gaya wa Medical Daily; sannan akwai kwakkwarar aikin da ke karatun yara da zarar sun shiga makarantar firamare. Amma yayin da adadin mace-macen jarirai da jin daɗin jiki ya inganta, muna buƙatar ƙara duba yadda za mu iya taimaka wa yara tsakanin haihuwa da shekaru 4 su bunƙasa, in ji McCoy. Wannan shine lokacin da suke haɓaka mahimman ƙwarewar ilmantarwa da kuma lafiyar jiki da tunani daga baya.

Don samun bayanan da suke buƙata, McCoy da tawagarta sun haɗa tare da nazarin sakamakon binciken da UNICEF ta gudanar tsakanin 2005 da 2015 a matsayin wani ɓangare na shirin Binciken Ƙungiyoyin Ma'ana da yawa na ƙungiyar. Masu kula da yara kusan 100,000 da ke zaune a cikin ƙasashe masu ƙanƙanta da matsakaita 35 sun amsa tambayoyin da ke da alaƙa da fahimi da halayen ɗansu, gami da fahimtar kwatance da ikon yin aiki da kansa, guje wa zalunci, da kuma yin hulɗa tare da takwarorinsu. - ginshiƙan matakai na farkon ƙuruciya.

Kusan kashi 36 cikin 100 na yara sun kasa cimma muhimman matakai na fahimi da zamantakewa a lokacin da suka kai shekaru 3. Wannan gibin ya fi girma a Chadi, Saliyo, da Jamhuriyar Tsakiyar Afirka; shi ne mafi ƙasƙanci a Bosnia da Montenegro. Gabaɗaya, kusan kashi 38 cikin ɗari na yara a Kudancin Asiya da kashi 44 cikin ɗari na yara a yankin kudu da hamadar Sahara sun nuna alamun matsalolin ci gaba kafin cika shekaru 5 da haihuwa. Sakamakon ya kuma nuna cewa, a yankunan karkara, yara maza ne ke fama da matsalar fiye da 'yan mata.

Tun da binciken da aka yi a baya ya nuna kashi 30 cikin 100 na yara suna fuskantar wani nau'i na tsangwama ko jinkirta ci gaban jiki a lokacin ƙuruciya, McCoy bai yi mamakin bincikenta ba. Duk da haka, lokacin da ta yi la'akari da yiwuwar jinkirin jiki, ta yi kiyasin yawan yaran da ke fuskantar hadarin matsalolin ci gaban farko ya kusan kashi 50 cikin dari.

Wani binciken da ya bambanta ya nuna cewa yawancin yaran da ke fama da talauci suna tasowa bisa ka'ida, kuma kashi ɗaya bisa uku na yara daga iyalai masu hannu da shuni suna fafutukar kaiwa ga ci gaban ci gaba. Sauran abubuwan haɗari ga ƙananan ƙima sun haɗa da cututtuka masu yaduwa da rashin samun ingantaccen kiwon lafiya da ilimi, masu binciken sun rubuta.

"Akwai dalilai daban-daban na fahimi da matsalolin zamantakewa," in ji McCoy, "kuma rashin lafiya da ke da alaka da kiwon lafiya bangare daya ne. Mun sani daga binciken dabbobi da suka gabata cewa rashin abinci mai gina jiki na iya yin tasiri ga ci gaban kwakwalwa kuma yana iya bayyana ta hanyar wahalar kulawa da [canje-canje a cikin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya."

Alal misali, wani binciken bera da aka buga a Kimiyyar Abinci ya gano cewa rashin abinci mai gina jiki da wuri zai iya canza tsarin juyayi na tsakiya, yana lalata aiki da ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya a cikin tsari. A shekara ta 2012, bincike ya nuna rashin abinci mai gina jiki ga jarirai da yara a matsayin matsalar kiwon lafiya ta duniya, wani abu da Gidauniyar Bill & Melinda Gates ta yi fatan kawo karshen ta hanyar baiwa Makarantar Likitanci ta Jami'ar Washington kyautar dala miliyan 8.3 don nemo sabbin hanyoyin gano cutar, magani, da hana cutar. matsala.

"Daya daga cikin ƙalubale a cikin aikin shine sau da yawa hanyoyin suna da ɗan rahusa," in ji McCoy, ma'ana masu kula da lafiya ba lallai ba ne su kasance cikin sadarwa tare da waɗanda ke da alaƙa da tsarin ilimi. "Matsalar ita ce sa duk waɗannan bangarorin suyi magana da juna."

McCoy ya kara da cewa akwai kyakkyawar shaida da ke nuna cewa hadakar kokarin - wanda ya hada lafiya da faffadan ci gaba - yana taimakawa yara marasa galihu sosai. Amma kuma, mahalarta binciken sau da yawa sun girmi 5 kuma binciken da aka yi a yanzu ya tabbatar da cewa ana buƙatar farawa da wuri. Wani bangare na dalilin da ya sa yara masu kasa da shekaru 3 ba a kula da su ba shine cewa har yanzu suna gida inda iyaye ke kula da su. A can albarkatun da suke buƙata an raba su kuma suna da wahala ga iyaye su sami damar shiga, in ji McCoy.

Ana iya ganin wannan buƙatar shiga tsakani da wuri, musamman a yankin kudu da hamadar Sahara a cikin rahoton 2012 na UNESCO. Masu bincike sun gano cewa kashi biyu bisa uku na al’ummar biranen yankin “suna zaune ne a cikin guraren marasa galihu inda rashin kwarewa ke iya sa matasa su yi sana’ar dogaro da kai.” Kuma a cikin 2010, tara daga cikin 10 matasa ba su da aikin yi, wanda ya fi muni ga waɗanda ba su yi karatun sakandare ba. Rahoton ya kammala da cewa waɗannan al'ummomin suna buƙatar wasu hanyoyi daban-daban don koyon tushe da ƙwarewa masu iya canzawa, kamar amincewa da sadarwa, in ji rahoton. An kuma kiyasta cewa "kowane $1 da aka kashe kan ilimin mutum yana samar da dala 10-15 a ci gaban tattalin arziki fiye da rayuwar mutumin."

"Mafi kyawun amsa ga koma bayan tattalin arziki da kuma rashin aikin yi na matasa shine tabbatar da cewa matasa sun sami ilimin asali da kuma horon da ya dace da suke bukata don shiga duniyar aiki tare da amincewa," in ji Irina Bokova, Darakta Janar na UNESCO, a lokacin. an fitar da rahoto.

A dunkule, binciken ya yi magana kan irin kalubalen da yara da iyalansu ke fuskanta a fadin duniya. McCoy ya yi imanin gudanar da nazarin da ke kaiwa yara hari da kuma ba da tallafi ga iyalai matasa muhimmin mataki ne na gaba don inganta rayuwar yara da al'ummominsu da kuma jin daɗin duniya.

Shahararren taken