Muyi Aiki Tare: Binciken Kwakwalwa Yana Nuna Ayyuka Daban-daban A Gare Maza Da Mata Lokacin kammala Aiki Tare
Muyi Aiki Tare: Binciken Kwakwalwa Yana Nuna Ayyuka Daban-daban A Gare Maza Da Mata Lokacin kammala Aiki Tare
Anonim

Ayyukan ƙungiya kamar gabatarwar ofis galibi suna haɗa mu yin aiki da kyau tare da wasu. Dukkanmu za mu iya ba da haɗin kai, amma hanyoyin da muke amfani da su ba koyaushe iri ɗaya suke ba, musamman idan ya zo ga jinsi. A cewar wani bincike na baya-bayan nan da aka buga a mujallar Scientific Reports, ana kunna sassa daban-daban na kwakwalwar maza da mata a yayin da suke aiki a kan wani aiki mai sauki, wanda ke nuni da cewa akwai bambance-bambancen jinsi idan ana maganar hadin gwiwa.

"Ba wai ko dai maza ko mata sun fi yin hadin gwiwa ba ko kuma ba za su iya ba da hadin kai ba," in ji Dokta Allan Reiss, babban marubucin binciken kuma farfesa a fannin ilimin hauka da halayyar dabi'a da kuma ilimin radiyo a Makarantar Magunguna ta Jami'ar Stanford., a cikin wata sanarwa. "A maimakon haka, akwai kawai bambanci a yadda suke haɗin gwiwa."

Binciken da aka yi a baya ya nuna cewa babu bambanci a cikin iyawar maza da mata, amma akwai bambanci a yadda jinsin biyu ke bi wajen magance matsaloli. Dangane da iyawar sararin samaniya, musamman ma idan ana batun juyar da tunani na abu, an gano cewa maza suna amfani da cikakkiyar hanya, kamar su hango gabaɗayan abu a lokaci guda, yayin da mata ke amfani da kwatanta alama ta aya. Haka kuma, mata sun fi yin amfani da ma'auni, inda maza za su yi amfani da dabaru irin su zane-zane na Venn don daidaitattun gwaje-gwajen lissafi.

Reiss da abokan aikinsa sun nemi yin nazarin sa hannun kwakwalwar halayen haɗin gwiwa a cikin nau'i-nau'i; yadda kwakwalwa ke amsa aikin haɗin gwiwa. "Manufar farko ita ce: ta yaya kwakwalwa biyu a cikin haɗin gwiwa ke daidaitawa da juna a ƙarƙashin waɗannan yanayi?" Reiss ya shaida wa Medical Daily.

Reiss da abokan aikinsa sun dauki nauyin mahalarta 222 don sanin yadda haɗin kai ke nunawa a cikin kwakwalwar maza da mata waɗanda suke aiki tare. An sanya mahalarta bi-biyu, wanda ya ƙunshi maza biyu, mata biyu, ko namiji da mace. An gaya musu su yi aiki mai sauƙi, haɗin gwiwa wanda ya haɗa da tura maɓalli lokaci guda, ba tare da magana da abokin aikinsu ba. Bayan kowane gwaji, an gaya wa ma'auratan wane abokin tarayya ya danna maɓallin da wuri, da kuma nawa da wuri. An ba su ƙoƙari 40 don samun lokaci kusa da yiwuwar.

Reiss ya ce "Mun kirkiro wannan gwajin ne saboda mai sauki ne, kuma kuna iya rikodin martani cikin sauki," in ji Reiss. "Dole ku fara wani wuri." Wannan ba a ƙirƙira shi ba bayan kowane takamaiman aikin haɗin gwiwa na gaske.

Masu binciken sun yi amfani da hyperscanning - wata dabara ce wacce a lokaci guda ke rubuta ayyukan da ke cikin kwakwalwar mutane biyu a yayin da suke mu'amala - da kuma kusa da infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), inda ake makala binciken a kan mutum don yin rikodin aikin kwakwalwar, wanda zai ba su damar zama a tsaye tare da mu'amala. fiye da ta halitta.

Sakamakon binciken ya nuna jinsi yana tasiri duka ɗabi'a da ayyukan kwakwalwa idan ya zo ga haɗin gwiwa. A matsakaita, nau'i-nau'i na maza da maza sun yi aiki mafi kyau fiye da nau'i-nau'i na mace-mace a lokacin da maballin su ya tura su kusa. Koyaya, aikin kwakwalwa a cikin nau'i-nau'i-nau'i-nau'i-nau'i-nau'i-nau'i-nau'i-nau'i-nau'i-nau'i-nau'i an daidaita su yayin haɗin gwiwa, ma'ana suna nuna manyan matakan "haɗin kai tsakanin kwakwalwa." Wannan yana da alaƙa da ingantaccen aiki akan aikin haɗin gwiwa. Abin mamaki, wurin da aka haɗa kai ya bambanta tsakanin nau'i-nau'i na namiji da na mace-mace.

A cikin maza, sassan kwakwalwa a cikin kogin prefrontal na dama - wanda ke da hannu tare da ayyuka da yawa - sun sami ƙarin iskar oxygen daga jini. Sabanin haka, a cikin mata, kunnawa ya faru a cikin yankin da ya dace na ɗan lokaci, wanda ke da hannu wajen gane alamun jikin zamantakewa. A halin yanzu, nau'i-nau'i na maza da mata sun yi da kuma namiji da namiji a aikin haɗin gwiwar, kodayake ba su nuna daidaituwa ba.

Masu binciken sun lura cewa basu auna aiki a duk sassan kwakwalwa ba.

Reiss ya ce "Akwai sassa da yawa na kwakwalwa da ba mu tantance ba." Wannan yana nuna haɗin gwiwar kwakwalwa na iya kasancewa a cikin wasu yankuna na kwakwalwa waɗanda ba a lura da su ba yayin aikin.

Ba a san ainihin matsayin yankunan kwakwalwar da aka lura a cikin binciken a lokacin aiki mai sauƙi ba, amma waɗannan binciken suna ba da haske game da hanyoyin jijiyoyi waɗanda ke tasiri yadda jima'i ke aiki tare.

Koyaya, abubuwan da aka gano sun kasance na farko don nuna ko dai jinsi ya fi kyau ko mafi muni a haɗin gwiwa. Maimakon haka, suna nuna akwai bambanci kawai a yadda suke haɗin gwiwa.

Namiji da mace suna aiki tare

Reiss ya yi imanin bambance-bambance a cikin ayyukan kwakwalwa a cikin maza da mata yayin ayyukan haɗin gwiwa duka duka tasirin ilimin halitta ne da muhalli.

“Ba abin mamaki ba ne ka ga bambance-bambancen yadda kwakwalwar maza da mata ke amsa nau’ukan ayyuka daban-daban. Ana amfani da sassan kwakwalwa daban-daban don samun sakamako iri daya,” inji shi.

Ya yi imanin cewa hanya daya tilo da za mu san yawan wadannan bambance-bambancen halittu ne maimakon muhalli za ta kasance ta hanyar nazarin yawan matasa. Yana da tsari da ke ƙara yin crystallized.

Nazarin zai iya taimakawa inganta haɓaka ƙungiyoyi ta hanyar gano mafi inganci nau'i-nau'i na mutane tare. Wannan kuma zai iya zama da amfani ga marasa lafiya da autism waɗanda ke da matsala tare da fahimtar zamantakewa. Reiss da abokan aikinsa sun yi imanin ƙarin bincike kan tsarin kwakwalwa yayin haɗin gwiwa zai iya taimakawa wajen ci gaban jiyya ga marasa lafiya masu fama da cuta kamar Autism, saboda zai taimaka musu su haɓaka dabarun mu'amala da wasu.

"Akwai hanyoyin da za a ba da ra'ayi ga ɗan adam da ke da irin wannan na'urar ko hoto, ko ma hulɗa da wani zai iya ba su damar canza tasirin haɗin kai" in ji Reiss.

Yawanci, mutanen da ke da Autism suna da wahalar bayyana kansu yayin hulɗar zamantakewa. Suna iya zama kamar ba su da haɗin kai saboda ba su koyi halayen da suka dace don yanayin zamantakewa daban-daban ba, a cewar Autism Speaks. Hakanan suna iya fuskantar matsalolin sarrafa ƙarfi ko wahala, kamar fushi, takaici, ko damuwa.

Ingantattun hanyoyin kwantar da hankali ta amfani da irin wannan hanyoyin a cikin binciken, na iya taimaka wa waɗanda ke da Autism "koyan yadda za su daidaita aikin kwakwalwarsu ga mutumin da suke hulɗa da shi" don taimakawa wajen cike gibin fahimtar zamantakewar da ke akwai, a cewar Reiss.

"Haɗin kai shine farkon hanyar hulɗa da wani," in ji shi.

Bugu da ƙari kuma, wani binciken da aka gudanar a shekara ta 2013 ya gano tsarin jikin mutum da ke da Autism ya dogara ne akan ko mai haƙuri namiji ne ko mace. Masu binciken sun lura cewa Autism yana shafar sassa daban-daban na kwakwalwa a cikin mata fiye da maza masu autism. Maza suna nuna alamar "mazaje" neuroanatomical, ma'ana yankuna na kwakwalwa da suka kasance masu kama da maza da mata masu tasowa. Ba a ga bambancin kwakwalwa a cikin manya maza da ke da Autism.

Fahimtar yadda Autism ke shafar kwakwalwar maza da mata, da kuma binciko ayyukan kwakwalwar maza da mata, da kuma yadda suke hada kai, na iya ba da kanta don tace maganin Autism.

Shahararren taken