Shaida ta Nuna Wannan, Ee, Masks suna Hana COVID-19 - Kuma Masks na tiyata sune hanyar da za a bi
Shaida ta Nuna Wannan, Ee, Masks suna Hana COVID-19 - Kuma Masks na tiyata sune hanyar da za a bi
Anonim

Shin masks suna aiki? Idan haka ne, ya kamata ku isa N95, abin rufe fuska, abin rufe fuska ko gaiter?

A cikin shekara guda da rabi da suka gabata, masu bincike sun samar da dakin gwaje-gwaje da yawa, tushen samfuri da shaidar lura kan tasirin abin rufe fuska. Ga mutane da yawa yana da wuya a gane abin da ke aiki da abin da ba ya aiki.

Ni mataimakin farfesa ne a fannin kimiyyar lafiyar muhalli. Ni ma, na yi mamakin amsoshin waɗannan tambayoyin, kuma a farkon wannan shekara na jagoranci binciken da ya yi nazarin binciken game da abubuwan da suka fi dacewa.

Kwanan nan, na kasance wani ɓangare na mafi girman gwajin da aka sarrafa bazuwar zuwa yau gwada tasirin sa abin rufe fuska. Har yanzu ba a sake nazarin binciken ba amma ya samu karbuwa daga bangaren likitocin. Abin da muka samo yana ba da shaida daidai gwargwado wanda ke tabbatar da binciken da ya gabata: Sanya abin rufe fuska, musamman abin rufe fuska, yana hana COVID-19.

Lab da na lura

Mutane suna amfani da abin rufe fuska don kare kansu daga kamuwa da cututtuka tun barkewar annobar Manchurian a 1910.

Yayin barkewar cutar sankara ta coronavirus, an mai da hankali kan abin rufe fuska a matsayin hanyar hana masu kamuwa da cutar gurbata iskar da ke kewaye da su - wanda ake kira sarrafa tushe. Shaidar dakin gwaje-gwaje na baya-bayan nan ta goyi bayan wannan ra'ayin. A cikin Afrilu 2020, masu bincike sun nuna cewa mutanen da suka kamu da cutar ta coronavirus - amma ba SARS-CoV-2 ba - sun fitar da ƙarancin coronavirus RNA a cikin iska da ke kewaye da su idan sun sanya abin rufe fuska. Yawancin ƙarin binciken dakin gwaje-gwaje kuma sun goyi bayan ingancin abin rufe fuska.

A cikin duniyar gaske, da yawa daga cikin masana cututtukan cututtukan dabbobi sun bincika tasirin rufe fuska da manufofin rufe fuska don ganin ko abin rufe fuska yana taimakawa rage yaduwar COVID-19. Ɗaya daga cikin binciken kallo - ma'ana ba binciken da aka sarrafa ba ne tare da mutanen da ke sanye ko ba sa sanye da abin rufe fuska - wanda aka buga a ƙarshen 2020 ya duba ƙididdigar alƙaluma, gwaji, kulle-kulle da sanya abin rufe fuska a cikin ƙasashe 196. Masu binciken sun gano cewa bayan shawo kan wasu dalilai, kasashen da ke da ka'idojin al'adu ko manufofin da ke tallafawa sanya abin rufe fuska sun ga mace-macen mako-mako na kowane mutum coronavirus ya karu da kashi 16% yayin barkewar cutar, idan aka kwatanta da karuwar kashi 62% na mako-mako a cikin kasashe ba tare da ka'idojin sanya abin rufe fuska ba.

Babban sikelin bazuwar abin rufe fuska

Laboratory, na lura da nazarce-nazarce, sun ci gaba da tallafawa ƙimar nau'ikan abin rufe fuska da yawa. Amma waɗannan hanyoyin ba su da ƙarfi kamar manyan gwaje-gwajen da aka sarrafa bazuwar a tsakanin jama'a, waɗanda ke kwatanta ƙungiyoyi bayan an aiwatar da sa baki a wasu ƙungiyoyin da aka zaɓa ba tare da aiwatar da su ba a cikin ƙungiyoyin kwatancen. Ofaya daga cikin irin wannan binciken da aka yi a Denmark a farkon 2020 bai cika ba, amma ya ɗan ƙaranci kuma ya dogara ga mahalarta don ɗaukar abin rufe fuska.

Daga Nuwamba 2020 zuwa Afrilu 2021, takwarorina Jason Abaluck, Ahmed Mushfiq Mobarak, Stephen P. Luby, Ashley Styczynski da ni - tare da haɗin gwiwa tare da abokan tarayya a cikin gwamnatin Bangladesh da bincike mai zaman kansa Innovations for Poverty Action - sun gudanar da babban bazuwar bazuwar. gwajin da aka sarrafa kan rufe fuska a Bangladesh. Burinmu shine mu koyi mafi kyawun hanyoyin haɓaka abin rufe fuska ba tare da izini ba, fahimtar tasirin sanya abin rufe fuska akan COVID-19, da kwatanta abin rufe fuska da abin rufe fuska.

Binciken ya shafi manya 341,126 a kauyuka 600 da ke karkarar Bangladesh. A cikin kauyuka 300 ba mu inganta abin rufe fuska ba, kuma mutane sun ci gaba da sanya abin rufe fuska, ko a'a, kamar yadda suke a da. A cikin kauyuka 200 mun inganta yin amfani da abin rufe fuska, kuma a cikin kauyuka 100 mun inganta abin rufe fuska, muna gwada dabaru daban-daban na isar da sako a kowace kungiya.

A cikin makonni takwas, ƙungiyarmu ta rarraba abin rufe fuska kyauta ga kowane babba a cikin rukunin abubuwan rufe fuska a gidajensu, sun ba da bayanai game da haɗarin COVID-19 da ƙimar saka abin rufe fuska. Mun kuma yi aiki tare da al'umma da shugabannin addini don yin samfuri da haɓaka sanya abin rufe fuska da ɗaukar ma'aikata don yawo a ƙauyen tare da nuna ladabi ga mutanen da ba sa sanya abin rufe fuska. Ma'aikatan sanye da kayan kwalliya sun yi rikodin ko mutane sun sanya abin rufe fuska da kyau a bakinsu da hanci, ba daidai ba ko a'a.

Duk makonni biyar da makonni tara bayan fara binciken, mun tattara bayanai daga duk manya kan alamun COVID-19 yayin lokacin binciken. Idan mutum ya ba da rahoton wata alama ta COVID-19, mun ɗauki kuma mun gwada samfurin jini don shaidar kamuwa da cuta.

Sanya abin rufe fuska ya rage COVID-19

Tambayar farko da ni da abokan aikina muke buƙatar amsa ita ce ko ƙoƙarinmu ya haifar da ƙara sanya abin rufe fuska. Amfani da abin rufe fuska sama da ninki uku, daga kashi 13% a cikin rukunin da ba a ba su abin rufe fuska ba zuwa kashi 42% a cikin rukunin da ke. Abin sha'awa, nisantar jiki shima ya karu da kashi 5% a kauyukan da muka inganta abin rufe fuska.

A cikin ƙauyuka 300 da muka rarraba kowane nau'in abin rufe fuska, mun ga raguwar 9% a cikin COVID-19 idan aka kwatanta da ƙauyukan da ba mu inganta abin rufe fuska ba. Saboda ƙananan ƙauyuka da muke haɓaka abin rufe fuska, ba mu iya sanin ko tufafi ko abin rufe fuska sun fi kyau a rage COVID-19.

Mun sami isasshen girman samfurin don sanin cewa a ƙauyukan da muka rarraba abin rufe fuska, COVID-19 ya faɗi da kashi 12%. A cikin waɗancan ƙauyuka COVID-19 ya faɗi da kashi 35% ga mutane masu shekaru 60 zuwa sama da 23% ga mutane masu shekaru 50-60. Lokacin kallon alamun COVID-19-kamar mun gano cewa duka tiyata da abin rufe fuska sun haifar da raguwar kashi 12%.

Jikin shaida yana goyan bayan masks

Kafin wannan binciken, an sami rashin daidaiton shaida na zinari kan tasirin abin rufe fuska don rage COVID-19 a rayuwar yau da kullun. Bincikenmu yana ba da shaida mai ƙarfi ta duniya cewa abin rufe fuska na tiyata yana rage COVID-19, musamman ga tsofaffi waɗanda ke fuskantar adadin mutuwa da nakasa idan sun kamu da cutar.

Masu tsara manufofi da jami'an kiwon lafiyar jama'a yanzu suna da shaida daga dakunan gwaje-gwaje, samfura, abubuwan lura da gwaje-gwaje na duniya waɗanda ke tallafawa sanya abin rufe fuska don rage cututtukan numfashi, gami da COVID-19. Ganin cewa COVID-19 na iya yaɗuwa cikin sauƙi daga mutum zuwa mutum, idan mutane da yawa suna sanya abin rufe fuska fa'idodin suna ƙaruwa.

Don haka lokaci na gaba da kuke tunanin ko yakamata ku sanya abin rufe fuska, amsar ita ce eh. Wataƙila abin rufe fuska ya fi komai kyau, amma babban abin rufe fuska na tiyata ko abin rufe fuska tare da ingantaccen tacewa kuma mafi dacewa - kamar KF94s, KN95s da N95s - sune mafi inganci wajen hana COVID-19.

Laura (Layla) H. Kwong, Mataimakin Farfesa na Kimiyyar Kiwon Lafiyar Muhalli, Jami'ar California, Berkeley

Shahararren taken