Rustam Gilfanov: Kwayoyin tushe, Abin da Kimiyya Ya sani kuma Yana tsammanin
Rustam Gilfanov: Kwayoyin tushe, Abin da Kimiyya Ya sani kuma Yana tsammanin
Anonim

A bayyane yake, ƙwayoyin sel ba magani ba ne: amma menene kimiyya za ta iya yi don kusantar da su zuwa ga wannan manufa?

Daidai shekaru 40 da suka gabata, wanda ya lashe kyautar Nobel a nan gaba Martin Evans ya buga bincikensa akan ƙwayoyin ƙwai na linzamin kwamfuta da yuwuwar lafiyar su [1]. Binciken nasa ya kawo sauyi na biomedicine, yayin da yake hasashen makomar gaba, inda duk wani nama mai lalacewa za a iya maye gurbinsa da wani sabo, wanda aka girma a cikin vitro daga sel masu haƙuri.

Menene ya canza tun 1981? Shin muna gabatowa lokacin da sabuntawa da gabobin wucin gadi suka zama gaskiya? Ko kuwa dabi'un bincike sun canza, tare da sake farfadowa da ke fita daga salon? Anan, zan yi ƙoƙarin fayyace manyan abubuwa da yawa.

Har yanzu, menene ya sa sel mai mahimmanci ya zama mahimmanci?

Akwai nau'ikan sel masu tushe guda biyu: Kwayoyin amfrayo da nama.

Masu ciki na iya canzawa zuwa kowane nau'in tantanin halitta. Dan tayi ya ƙunshi waɗannan sel a cikin kwanaki 3-5 na ciki. Kuma idan an ajiye su a cikin yanayi na musamman, za su iya rarraba kusan marar iyaka, yayin da suke zama marasa canzawa.

Ana iya samun ƙaramin adadin ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin nama a cikin gabobin mutanen manya. Suna taimakawa wajen dawo da kyallen takarda da suka lalace kuma suna iya canzawa zuwa nau'in tantanin halitta guda ɗaya kawai. A ƙarshe, masana kimiyya sun koyi yin analogs na ƙwayoyin mahaifa daga cikinsu waɗanda za a iya amfani da su don girma nau'ikan nama iri-iri. Tun zamanin Martin Evans, ana kiran su da yawa masu ƙarfi.

Gano waɗannan nau'ikan tantanin halitta guda biyu ya haifar da haɓakar haɓakar magungunan haɓaka cikin sauri. Hanyoyin da zai iya jurewa sun haɗa da shanyewar jiki, cututtukan zuciya, ciwon sukari, Parkinson's da Alzheimer's, ALS, osteoarthritis, ƙonewa mai tsanani, har ma da cututtuka daban-daban. Koyaya, dole ne mu yarda cewa ya zuwa 2021, maganin farfadowa ya kasa cimma irin wannan fitaccen sakamako.

A ina suke da amfani da gaske?

A cikin 1998, an gano fasahar da ta ba da izinin "raba" ƙwayoyin ƙwanƙwasa embryoniya daga kwayoyin halitta kuma suyi girma a cikin vitro, watau, a zahiri canza su zuwa kyallen takarda na kowane nau'i [2]. Don haka, maganin farfadowa ya motsa daga ka'idar zuwa aiki, kamar yadda ya zama mai yiwuwa a yi aiki tare da kwayoyin halitta a cikin yanayin dakin gwaje-gwaje.

Kwayoyin sel sun riga sun ba da gudummawa ga kimiyya - ba kai tsaye a matsayin hanyar jiyya ba, amma a fakaice a matsayin hanyar nazarin muhimman abubuwa daban-daban. Misali, ta kallon yadda suke girma zuwa kashi, jijiya, ko wasu kwayoyin halitta, likitoci da masana kimiyya suna samun kyakkyawar fahimtar yadda cututtukan gado ke ci gaba.

Bayan haka, masu ilimin harhada magunguna suna amfani da kwayoyin halitta don gwada sabbin magunguna. Don fara gwajin ɗan adam, dole ne a tabbatar da cewa magani yana da aminci. Don yin wannan, ana amfani da kyallen takarda da suka samo asali daga sel mai tushe: misali, yana yiwuwa yanzu don girma ƙwayoyin jijiyoyi don gwada sabon magani daga cututtuka na jijiyoyin jini. Irin waɗannan gwaje-gwajen na iya bayyana tasiri mai kyau ko mara kyau a gaba kuma, a ka'idar, haɓaka gwajin sarrafawa bazuwar ta hanyar taimakawa don guje wa dogayen hanyoyin doka masu nauyi. Koyaya, wannan hanyar ta kasance mafi tsada fiye da na gargajiya, kodayake a hankali, rajista na ƴan takara.

Me yasa har yanzu ƙwayoyin sel ba su zama wani abu ba?

Duk da ƙwararrun sakamakon bincike, likitocin suna yin amfani da hanya ɗaya kawai ta maganin ƙwayar cuta - dashen kasusuwa don maganin kansar jini.

Yawancin ƙuntatawa suna hana ci gaban magani na farfadowa. Ɗaya daga cikinsu shi ne rashin tabbas: masu bincike dole ne su tabbata cewa kwayoyin halitta za su canza zuwa nama da suke shirin samu. Har ila yau, likitocin suna buƙatar koyan yadda za su daidaita haɓakawa da haɓakar ƙwayoyin sel don hana rarrabuwar sel marasa ƙarfi wanda ke haifar da ciwace-ciwacen ƙwayar cuta.

Bayan haka, tsarin garkuwar jiki na iya kai hari ga ƙwayoyin da ke cikin mahaifa suna kuskuren cewa mahara ne, yayin da magungunan zamani ba su da kayan aikin daidaita wannan martanin na rigakafi. Za mu iya ganin sakamakon hakan a cikin ainihin lokacin cutar ta COVID-19, tare da dubban mutane suna mutuwa saboda mummunan martani da rigakafin rigakafi, ba saboda tasirin SARS-CoV-2 kai tsaye ba.

Har ila yau, dole ne a yi la'akari da cewa fasahohin zamani suna nuna tasiri mai yawa. Marasa lafiya da ke da sclerosis da yawa, waɗanda suka karɓi maganin tantanin halitta, sun sha wahala daga ƙarancin platelet da adadin fararen jini, cututtuka, da lalacewar hanta mai guba [3].

Wata matsala kuma ita ce tsadar wannan hanyar. Wani zama na maganin MS da aka jera a sama ya kai fam 40,000.

A ƙarshe, akwai wani ƙuntatawa wanda har yanzu ba za a iya shawo kansa ba kuma yana da alaƙa da batutuwan fasaha da ɗabi'a. Rahoton juyin juya hali na 1998 da na ambata a baya ya bayyana tayin cewa an lalatar da ƙwayoyin “laron” ga masu binciken. Daga hangen nesa na ɗan adam, muna tafiya cikin sirara tsakanin "kashe mai yuwuwar halitta don wanda ya rigaya ya kasance" da "kawai yin amfani da sel".

A cikin 2006, mai bincike na Japan Shinya Yamanaka ya ba da mafita ga wannan matsalar: ya ƙirƙira abin da ake kira induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC), de facto yana ba da analog ga ƙwayoyin amfrayo wanda ya dogara ne akan kwayoyin somatic na manya. A wannan yanayin, babu buƙatar halaka amfrayo; don wannan nasarar, farfesa Yamanaka ya sami kyautar Nobel ta Nobel a fannin Physiology ko Medicine. Duk da haka, yayin da ake magance matsala ɗaya, wannan hanyar ta haifar da wata sabuwa.

Masana kimiyya sun gano cewa iPSCs suna da babban yuwuwar haifar da ciwace-ciwacen daji - kuma haɗarin malignancy yana da mahimmanci don fara amfani da waɗannan ƙwayoyin cuta don dalilai na warkewa.

Don haka, hanyar da ta dace ta ɗabi'a kawai ta yin amfani da ƙwayoyin jikin mahaifa da muke da ita a halin yanzu ita ce ta amfani da ƙwayoyin ƙwai na linzamin kwamfuta - an gwada wannan fasaha kuma tana da inganci sosai, kodayake tana da tsada sosai [4].

Menene nasarorin da aka samu a maganin tantanin halitta?

Dole ne mu yarda cewa a yanzu, shekaru 40 tun lokacin da aka gano Martin Evans da shekaru 23 tun lokacin da aka fara cin nasara a cikin maganin ƙwayoyin cuta na vitro, har yanzu maganin haihuwa yana ɗaukar matakan jariri. Akwai shirye-shiryen bincike da yawa amma ƴan fasaha ne kawai suka sanya shi zuwa "samuwar yawan jama'a". Amma duk da haka ko da waɗannan sakamako na tsaka-tsaki suna da ban mamaki.

Misali, a cikin 2016 ƙungiyar masana kimiyya daga Girka da Burtaniya sun yi ƙoƙarin sake farfado da ƙwayar tsoka na marasa lafiya masu rauni ta hanyar dasawa ƙwayoyin myocardium waɗanda aka girma a cikin lab [5]. A sakamakon haka, cardiac callosity ya ragu da kashi 40%. Kafin wannan, an yi la'akari da irin wannan lalacewa ba za a iya magance su ba. Duk da haka, mutane 11 ne kawai suka shiga cikin binciken kuma wannan adadin ya yi ƙanƙanta da ba za a iya yanke shawara ba.

Masana kimiyya a hankali suna inganta fasahar da suke aiwatarwa. Ga misali. Tsarin rigakafi na iya kai hari ga dashen kwayar halitta, yana kuskuren wani abu na waje. Wannan shine dalilin da ya sa likitocin ke aiki akan al'adar sel waɗanda ba sa haifar da amsawar rigakafi. A cikin 2020, masu bincike daga Karolinska Institutet da St. Eric Eye Asibitin (Sweden) sun sami wata hanya don inganta samar da ƙwayoyin retina daga sel masu tsini don magance makanta a tsakanin tsofaffi marasa lafiya [6]. Sun yi nasarar canza sel ta yadda za su iya ɓuya daga tsarin rigakafi maimakon lalata su.

Wata fasaha mai ban sha'awa ta haɗa da ƙwayoyin da suka riga sun kasance a cikin jiki. A lokacin gwajin da masu bincike na Jami'ar Illinois suka gudanar, an gabatar da nanoparticles tare da kwayoyin da ke motsa ayyukan ƙwayoyin sel zuwa ga lalacewar tsokoki na berayen [7]. Sakamakon haka, tsokoki suna farfadowa da sauri kuma dabbobin suna iya tafiya mai nisa, idan aka kwatanta da maganin gargajiya.

Har ila yau, shari'o'in kadaici sun kasance babban nasara. A cikin 2019, likitocin Japan, a karon farko a cikin tarihi, sun dasa hepatocytes waɗanda aka girma daga ƙwayoyin jikin ɗan adam zuwa jariri mai kwanaki shida: hantar yaron ba ta da enzyme wanda ke canza samfuran rushewar nitrogen zuwa urea. Don haka, an toshe cutar da ba kasafai ake samun haihuwa ba [8]. Masana kimiyya suna tunanin cewa dashen hepatocyte mai tushe, tare da ingancinsa da amincinsa da aka gwada ta wannan yanayin, ana iya amfani da shi nan gaba ba kawai don magance cututtukan sake zagayowar urea ba har ma don taimakawa marasa lafiya waɗanda ke buƙatar jira mai ba da gudummawar hanta.

Shekara ɗaya kafin, a cikin 2018, masana kimiyya sun haɓaka zuciyar ɗan adam daga iPSCs. Sun ƙirƙira wani nau'in nama na zuciya na zuciya mai yin kwangila, tare da halayensa (bayanin kwayoyin halitta, tsari, da sauransu) mai kama da nama mai aiki na zuciya na babban mutum [9]. Kodayake ba shi yiwuwa a dasa wannan "zuciya ta wucin gadi" ga majiyyaci, gwajin ya zama mai amfani don gwada sababbin magunguna.

A cikin 2020, marasa lafiya 13 da ke da raunin kashin baya sun sami maganin gwaji wanda ya haɗa da ƙwayoyin kara. Saboda raunin da ya faru, sun sha wahala daga irin waɗannan alamun bayyanar cututtuka kamar asarar aikin motsa jiki da kuma hankali na jiki, hanji da rashin aiki na mafitsara, da dai sauransu. Duk marasa lafiya an ba su allurai da yawa na ƙwayoyin cuta na mesenchymal (magungunan da yawa masu iya canzawa zuwa nau'ikan tantanin halitta ciki har da neurons).) sun kasance daga bakinsu. 12 daga cikin mahalarta 13 sun nuna ci gaba sosai a cikin watanni shida masu zuwa - kuma waɗannan sakamakon suna da ban sha'awa sosai [10].

Gwaje-gwaje akan berayen da masu binciken Sweden suka gudanar ya haifar da sakamako mai ban sha'awa: masana kimiyya sun sami nasarar dawo da jijiyoyin dabbobi bayan bugun jini ta hanyar amfani da iPSCs. Don yin wannan, sun sake tsara ƙwayoyin fata na ɗan adam kuma ƙwayoyin da aka haɗa da sauri sun dace da tsarin jijiyoyi. Watanni shida bayan dashen, duk alamun lalacewar kwakwalwa da bugun jini ya haifar sun bace kuma berayen sun dawo da aikinsu na motsa jiki da kuma fahimtar taɓawa [11]. Duk da haka, ba za a iya ƙididdige tasirin "halayen" na batutuwan gwaji ba - wannan na iya zama babban cikas ga aiwatar da irin wannan yuwuwar "dashi" akan mutane.

A taƙaice, kusan kowane mako za a iya samun sabon labarin da ke alfahari da nasarar binciken ƙwayar ƙwayar cuta a cikin mujallolin kimiyya. Duk da haka duk waɗannan gwaje-gwajen ba su kawo mu kusa da nasara akan kowace cuta mai tsanani ba ko aƙalla tabbatar da cewa maganin farfadowa yana kaiwa wani sabon mataki. To mene ne lamarin?

Waɗanne ƙalubale ne maganin farfadowa ke fuskanta?

1. Kasuwar salula ta kai dala biliyan 14.7 a shekarar 2020 kuma ana hasashen za ta karu zuwa biliyan 26.4 nan da shekarar 2026. Wato ana sa ran za ta rubanya nan da shekaru biyar masu zuwa. Wannan hasashe ne mai kyau sosai kuma masu zuba jari suna tara hannun jari na kamfanonin binciken kwayoyin halitta, suna haɓaka ƙimar su da faɗaɗa kasuwa.

Kun sami abin da nake nufi? Imani da ƙwayoyin sel da kuma ikonsu na magance kusan kowace matsala ta likitanci ya mayar da wannan kasuwa ta zama kumfa da za ta iya fashe kowane lokaci, tare da jefa waɗannan jarin da suka wuce gona da iri. Abin da ya fi muni, wannan rikicin zai dakatar da bincike na likita da ake ci gaba da yi, mai yiyuwa ya sa wanda zai iya ba mu ingantacciyar fasaha mai inganci don magance cutar kansa ko cututtukan zuciya.

'Yan wasan kasuwa, masu saka hannun jari, da masu binciken kwayoyin halitta da kansu yakamata su rage tsammaninsu ta yadda kumfa ta daina girma akan babban bege kadai. Dole ne ƙimar hannun jari da saka hannun jari ya haɓaka bisa ga ainihin binciken da nasarorin da aka samu - wannan zai fi fa'ida ga kimiyya fiye da duk wani haɓakar da hankali mara tushe ya haifar. Wannan shi ne abin da ya faru da fasahar CRISPR-Cas na juyin juya hali: daga babban yanayin kasuwanci, ya fito daga babu; amma yanzu da gaske yana canza duniya.

2. Masana'antar tantanin halitta (duka masu zuba jari da masu bincike) suna buƙatar mai da hankali kan cutar ta COVID-19. Wasu nazarin sun riga sun yi ƙoƙarin yaƙar COVID-19 tare da fasahar iPSC; duk da haka ko da sun gaza (ba mu da ingantattun magunguna a kan ƙwayoyin cuta daban-daban kuma ba zai yuwu mu sami waɗanda ke jinyar SARS-CoV-2), ya zama dole a kama lokacin.

Wannan na iya yin sauti mai ƙididdigewa ko abin kunya, amma hankalin gwamnatoci, kasuwanci, da jama'a ga masana'antar kiwon lafiya ba koyaushe zai kasance mai girma kamar yadda yake a lokacin bala'in ba. Yanzu shine lokacin da ya dace don jawo hankalin kuɗi, fasahohi, da albarkatun ɗan adam - a tsakiyar 2020s, idan an karɓi COVID-19 a ƙarƙashin kulawa, ana iya samun nasarar “canja wurin” zuwa wasu wuraren magunguna.

3. Yana da mahimmanci a yi amfani da fasahar bayanai. Gwaje-gwaje akan beraye ba su iya yin saurin tantance hanyoyin aiki daban-daban na ƙwayar sel, musamman idan aka yi la'akari da ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙa'idodin gwajin ɗan adam. Nasarorin da nasarorin da na ambata a cikin wannan labarin, da kuma dubban wasu, raguwa ne kawai a cikin teku idan aka kwatanta da abin da ake buƙata don taimakawa maganin farfadowa ya samo asali zuwa cikakkiyar horo mai aiki.

Samfuran kwamfuta na yau suna ba da dama ta musamman don binciken siliki - a zahiri, mun riga mun sami amintattun “masu fama da cutar sankara” don gwadawa ko da hadaddun hanyoyin kamar “sake shirye-shirye” tantanin halitta. "Gwajin na asibiti na zahiri" yana kawar da matsalolin ɗabi'a kuma yana ba da damar tattara bayanai cikin sauri ga masana kimiyya daga ko'ina cikin duniya, waɗanda ke gudanar da irin wannan binciken. Babu buƙatar kawar da hanyoyin bincike na gargajiya, duk da haka yaduwa a cikin fasahar siliki na iya haɓaka binciken ƙwayar ƙwayar cuta sau da yawa.

4. Tun kafin a haifi Dolly tumakin, mutane sun yi ta muhawara a kan yanayin ɗabi’a na ƙulla talikai, musamman’yan Adam. A zamanin yau, ana sanya takunkumin doka a kan irin waɗannan hanyoyin a cikin ƙasashe da yawa, yayin da tsarin tsarin kwayoyin halitta yana kan matakin haihuwa - ba tare da sake yin wani tsari ba.

Kwararru daga masana'antu daban-daban - kiwon lafiya, doka, IT, magunguna, da kimiyya na asali ciki har da ɗan adam (misali, masu bincike kan ɗabi'a, ɗabi'a, da ra'ayoyin falsafa na zamanin dijital) - suna buƙatar shiga ƙoƙarinsu kuma saita isassun ƙa'idodin wannan wasan. Wadanne sel masu tushe za a iya amfani da su kuma a wane yanayi? Wadanne nau'ikan "reprogramming" sun yarda kuma waɗanda ba su da kyau? Menene iyakoki na ɗabi'a na gwaje-gwaje na asibiti da jiyya waɗanda suka haɗa da ƙwayoyin kara? Tambayoyi da yawa har yanzu suna buƙatar amsa - da samar da waɗannan amsoshi a cikin lambobi da jagororin.

Don da gaske yin sel mai tushe da magungunan sake haɓaka abu mai girma na gaba, maimakon zama kawai wani yanayi na zamani ko kumfa na kasuwa, muna buƙatar aiwatar da wannan. Kuma muna bukatar mu yi shi tare.

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Game da Marubuci

Rustam Gilfanov ɗan kasuwan IT ne kuma abokin haɗin gwiwa na asusun LongeVC.

Magana:

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Shahararren taken